From the fat earth to the suns chariot traditiona spiritua texts seem wedded to outmoded cosmoogies that show, at best, the scientific imitations of their authors. The Bhagavata Purana, one of the cassica scriptures of Hinduism, seems, at first gance, to be no exception. However, a coser examination of this text reveas unexpected depths of knowedge in ancient cosmoogy. This shows that the cosmoogy of the Bhagavata Purana is a sophisticated system, with mutipe eves of meaning that encode at east four different astronomica, geographica, and spiritua word modes. By viewing the text in the ight of modern astronomy, Richard Thompson shows how ancient scientists expressed exact knowedge in apparenty mythoogica terms. Comparison with the ancient traditions of Egypt and the Near East shows eary cutura connections between India and these regions incuding a surprisingy advanced science. However, quantitative science is ony part of the picture. This work aso offers a cear understanding of how the spiritua dimension was integrated into ancient Indian cosmoogy.